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Selective Enhancement of Viewing Angle Characteristics and Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes through an Easily Tailorable Si3N4



We selectively improved the viewing angle characteristics and light extraction efficiency of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by tailoring a nanofiber-shaped Si3N4 layer, which was used as an internal scattering layer. The diameter of the polymer nanofibers changed according to the mass ratio of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the polymer solution for electrospinning. The Si3N4 nanofiber (SNF) structure was fabricated by etching an Si3N4 film using the PAN/PMMA nanofiber as a mask, making it easier to adjust parameters, such as the diameter, open ratio, and height, even though the SNF structure was randomly shaped. The SNF structures exhibited lower transmittance and higher haze with increasing diameter, showing little correlation with their height. However, all the structures demonstrated a total transmittance of over 80%. Finally, by applying the SNF structures to the blue TADF OLEDs, the external quantum efficiency was increased by 15.6%. In addition, the current and power efficiencies were enhanced by 23.0% and 25.6%, respectively. The internal light-extracting SNF structure also exhibited a synergistic effect with the external light-extracting structure. Furthermore, when the viewing angle changed from 0° to 60°, the peak wavelength and CIE coordinate shift decreased from 20 to 6 nm and from 0.0561 to 0.0243, respectively. These trends were explained by the application of Snell’s law to the light path and were ultimately validated through finite-difference time-domain simulations.


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